In 1978, Louise Brown became the world’s first baby to born with the help of in vitro fertilization, or IVF. Her birth revolutionized the sector of reproductive medicine. Now look at the present scenario, IVF is so common, that around 5 million babies are born with the help of this technology.
Dr. Hrishikesh Pai who is one of the best IVF specialist in India says, “As per the newest data, approximately one in eight heterosexual couples is facing pregnancy issues. Homosexual couples and single parents often need clinical help to make a baby due to which the demand for IVF has been growing.” Dr. Pai is working with Bloom IVF Center which is one of the best IVF center in Mumbai. In this article, he explains the IVF process. On the other hand, we have Dr. Mohit Saraogi who is one of the best IVF specialist in Mumbai. He will explain a few other considerable things about IVF.
Natural Process of Baby Making-
In order to understand IVF, we first need to take a look at the natural baby-making process. As per our specialists, IVF works by imitating the brilliant design of amphimixis. Believe it or not, it all starts within the brain. Roughly fifteen days before fertilization can happen, the anterior pituitary gland secretes the FSH, which ripens a few follicles of the ovary that then release estrogen. Each follicle contains one egg, and on average, only one follicle becomes fully mature. During its growth phase, it releases estrogen which helps coordinate the expansion and preparation of the uterus. It also communicates to the brain the follicle development. When the estrogen level is high enough, the anterior pituitary gland
releases a surge of LH, which triggers ovulation and causes the follicle to rupture and release the egg. Once the egg leaves the ovary, it’s directed into the Fallopian tube by the finger-like fimbriae. If the egg isn’t fertilized by sperm within 24 hours, the unfertilized egg will die, and thus the whole system will reset itself, preparing to form a replacement egg and uterine lining the subsequent month.
The egg is the most important factor for IVF. It’s protected by a thick, extracellular shell of sugar and protein which is named the zona. The zona thwarts the entry and prevents fusion of more than one sperm, the tiniest cell within the body. It takes an individual two to three months to make sperm, and thus the method constantly renews. Each ejaculation during sexual intercourse releases around 100 million sperm. But only 100 approximately will ultimately make it to the proximity of the egg, and only one will successfully penetrate through the armor of the zona. Upon successful fertilization, the zygote immediately starts developing into an embryo and takes approximately three days to reach the uterus. There, it requires another three days to implant firmly into the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus. Once implanted, the cells secrete a hormone that signals to the ovulated follicle that there’s a pregnancy within the uterus. This helps rescue that follicle, now called the corpus luteum, from degenerating because it normally would neutralize that stage of the cycle. The endocrine gland is responsible for producing the progesterone, required to take care of the pregnancy until six to seven weeks of gestation when the placenta develops and takes over until the baby is born about 40 weeks later.
Baby Making in a Lab?
In patients undergoing IVF, FSH is run at levels that are above present to cause controlled overstimulation of the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. The eggs are then retrieved just before ovulation would occur, while the woman is under anesthesia, through an aspirating needle that’s guided by ultrasound. Within the laboratory, the identified eggs are stripped of their surrounding cells and kept ready for fertilization inside a sterilized Petri dish. Most sperm samples are produced by masturbation.
Fertilization Process in IVF-
Fertilization can occur by one of the two techniques. Within the first, the eggs are incubated with thousands of sperm and fertilization occurs naturally over a couple of hours. The second technique maximizes the chances of fertilization because it uses a needle to put one sperm precisely inside the egg. This method is more useful when there’s an issue with sperm quality. After fertilization, embryos are further screened for any genetic issues. They’re frozen for later attempted pregnancies, or delivered into the woman’s uterus via a catheter. The embryos are transferred after three days of fertilization when the embryo has eight cells. It can be also done on day five also when the embryo is named as blastocyst and has many cells.
Things to Consider-
If the woman’s eggs are of poor quality because of age or toxic exposures or are removed because of cancer, donor eggs must be used to avoid complications. If the intended mother features a problematic uterus or lacks one, another woman can use her uterus to hold the pregnancy which is named surrogacy. To extend the prospect of success, which is as high as 40% for a lady younger than 35 years, doctors sometimes transfer multiple embryos together. This is often why IVF leads to twins and triplets more often compared to natural pregnancies. However, most clinics seek to attenuate the probabilities of multiple pregnancies, as they’re riskier for mothers and babies.
Today many babies, like Louise Brown, are born from IVF and are having normal, healthy lives. So far, IVF seems safe for ladies due to the upper success rate, better genetic testing, delayed childbearing, increased accessibility, and diminishing cost. The day isn’t far when artificial baby-making via IVF and related techniques will outpace natural reproduction.